Concept, scope and importance of child psychology.
Child psychology is the science of dealing with the mental power or interaction between the conscious and subconscious element in a child.
- Child psychology is one of the many branches of psychology
- This branch focus on the mind and behavior of the child from parental development through adolescence.
- Physically, mentally, emotionally, social development study of child
Importance of child psychology (from medical perspective)
- To understand the child better
- To know that some problems have a psychological origin
- To deliver mental core in the effective and meaningful manner
- To establish effective communication between child and the parent
- To teach parents and children the importance of primary and preventive care.
- To have better treatment planning and interactive with other medical disciplines.
Stages of child development
- Prenatal period => conception to delivery
- Infancy => first few weeks (0-18 month)
- Babyhood/ Toddlerhood => up to 2 years.
- Early childhood => 18 months-6 years
- Late childhood => 6-11 years
- Puberty => No exact time (based upon sexual maturity)
- Adolescence => 13 up to 19years
There are important stages of child growth and development & their psychological accomplishment.
Prenatal Period (conception to delivery)
- It begins of the moment for Prenatal period is 28 weeks to 266 days.
- 70% are vary from 36 to 40 weeks (252 to 280 days)
- the hereditary endowment is fixed.
- favorable and unfavorable conditions will effect to both physical and psychological traits.
- gender of the newly individual is fixed at the time of conception.
- proportionally greater growth and development microscopically small cell to 21 inches length and 2 kgs weight–>increase eleven million times.
Infancy (0-18 days/ 2 weeks)
- Characterized by dependency
- Child start to elicit responses in family members.
- Reciprocal relationship with environment is established
- Child’s emotional & mental development is linked to the quality of care & support he/ she receives.
- Psychological accomplishment
i) Sense of basic Trust
ii) Sense of Attachment
Early childhood (18 months to 6 years)
- period of socialization & identification
- rapid physical & mental maturation gross, motor skills become better coordinated. discovers & learn to achieve.
- socialization process actively takes place. children are helped to become responsible members of society
Late Childhood (6-11 years old)
- peers become extra sources of identification & pressure to achieve
- children become more skillful shows greater sense of independence & motivation to achieve.
Adolescence (13-19 years)
- Gradual independence
- neither child nor adult
Early Adolescence (13-15 years)
- period of rapid physical growth & sexual maturational
- major changes in body appearance often results to insecurity, emotional trouble, self consciousness.
Late Adolescence (15-19 years)
- move family to peer groups
- emotionally unstable as well as more creative age.
Hazards of Prenatal Periods
There are Two types of Hazards:
i) Physical hazards
ii) Psychological hazards.
Physical hazards : There are Three major sub-divisions:
- Period of the zygote
=> Lack of uterine preparation
=> Implantation in the wrong place.
- Period of the Embryo
=> Developmental Irregularities.
- Period of the Fetus
=> Complications of Deliver
=> Developmental Irregularities
Conditions influencing physical Hazards:
- Maternal and nutrition
- Maternal age
- Certain kind of works
- Multiple births
- Chromosomal abnormality.
* Traditional beliefs.
* Maternal stress.
* Unfavorable attitudes on the part of significant people
- not wanting child
- not wanting child at this time
- preference for a child of a particular sex.
- dream child concept
- not wanting children of multiple births
- wanting to have miscarriage or an abortion
- scorn for the child
Infancy period of new born (0-18 months)
Infancy is a rich formative period for the development for physical and social understanding
- infancy is the shortest of all development periods
- infancy is a time of radical adjustment
- infancy is a plateau in development
- infancy is a preview of later development
- infancy is a hazardous period.
Hazards of infancy
- unfavorable environment
- difficult and complicated birth
- post maturity
- infant moratality
- multiple birth
- traditional beliefs about birth
- individuality of the infant
- developmental leg
- plateau in development
- lack of stimulation
- new parents blues
- unfavorable attitudes on the part of the significant people
toddler-hood occupies the first two years of the life.
there is gradual develop but pronounced; decrease in helplessness.
Characteristics of toddler hoods:
- many behavior patterns, many attitudes, and many patterns of emotional expressions are being established
Four reasons why true foundations:
- Children don’t outgrow undesirable traits as they grow older.
- If an undesirable pattern of behavior or unfavorable beliefs and attitudes have started to develop early foundations quickly develop into habits through repetitions, it will influence life long on a child’s personal and social adjustments.
- Learning and experience play dominant roles in development.
Toddlerhood is an age of Rapid Growth and Change
- Grows rapidly both physically and psychologically
- Change not only in appearance but also in capacities
- Baby’s ability to recognize and respond to the people and objects in the environment.
Toddlerhood is an age of Decreasing Dependency
- Results from the rapid development of body control is to sit, stand, and walk and to manipulate objects.
- Also able to communicate their needs to others
- They can or believe they can do for themselves, if they are not permitted to try to be independent when they want to be, they protest
- If protests, it takes the form of anger outburst and crying and soon develops into negativism.
Toddlerhood is the age of increased individuality
- Develop their interest and abilities
- Individuality is shown in appearance and in patterns of behavior
- Even identical multiple births show individuality
Toddlerhood is the beginning of socialization
- The egocentrism, characteristic of the very young baby, quickly gives way to a desire to become a part of the social group.
- Trying to win the attention of others.
Toddlerhood id the beginning of sex-role typing
- Boys are treated as boys and girls as girls.
Toddlerhood is an appealing age.
Toddlerhood is the beginning of creativity
Toddlerhood is a hazardous age.
Hazards in Toddlerhood/ Babyhood
- Physical hazards
- Mortality and crib death
- Foundations of obesity
- Physiological habits
- Psychological hazards
- Hazards in motor development
- Speech hazards
- Emotional hazards
- Social hazards
- Play hazards
- Hazards in understanding
- Family-Relationship hazards
- First, separation from mother.
- 2nd, failure to develop attachment behavior
- 3rd, deterioration in family relationships
- 4th, over protectiveness
- 5th, inconsistent training
- 6th, child abuse
- Hazards in personality development
- Hazards in morality
Early childhood period (2-6 years)
- Foundation period of life covering 2-6 years.
- Rapid physical, mental, emotional, social and language development
- It is a period of slow growth and rapid development
- Major developmental aspects such as development of understanding, moral values, common interests.
- Helplessness and dependency of child is replaced by growing independence.
- Awareness of social and physical realties.
- It is period of mental growth
|3 years old||4 years old||5 years old|
3 years old:
- Interested in their work and themselves.
- Unable to express their feelings.
- Like to listen stories, music, jokes and dance
- Bed wetting, nail biting, temper tantrum problems are common
- It is time to plant seeds and watch them grow.
- Careful observation is need.
- Picture books, flash cards, and play dough are effective to teach them
- Provide as much as stimulation.
4 years old:
- Able to start reading & writing skills
- Able to master colors, sizes, shapes (enjoy on painting, cutting, building blocks & puzzles)
- Shy nature & isolation
- No gender decimation
- Symbolic play
- Hypersomnia symptoms
5 years old:
- High level of curiosity
- Lair & fantastic conversation
- Able to understand and recognize meaningful words.
- Able to write their own name & rhymes words.
- Electra complex & Oedipus complex starts.
- Show more temper tantrum and negativism
Electra complex => female child being close with father
Oedipus complex => Male child being close with mother
6 years old:
- Physically and mentally more matured
- Speech is well developed
- Stage of full electro and Oedipus complex.
Hazards in Early childhood:
- Nail biting
- Thumb sucking
- Lying and stealing
- Bed wetting
- Fears of ghost, witches, monster
- Night mares
- Early schooling and academic stress
- Sibling rivalry
- Attention seeker
Developmental tasks up to 6 years children
- Learning to walk independently
- Able to take solid foods/ self-eating
- Learning to talk and communicate fluently
- Able to control toilet
- Able to differentiate, gender and sexual modality
- Able to achieve physiological stability
- Able to form simple concepts (objects, shape, size, living and non-living things, color, distance and physical)
- Able to learn to relate oneself emotionally to parents, siblings and other relatives.
- Able to distinguish what is right and wrong and develop conscience.
- Able to understand and share love and affection
- Able to act as a given gender.
Late childhood Period (6-12 years)
- Slow & steady development as compared to others.
- Children are hurried more stressful & depressed
- Quarrelsome and sloppy (lack of care, aware and careless)
- School age, gang, & creative age
- Happy age
- Very critical age
- Less egocentric
- Want to become good boy/ girl
- Girls are friendlier & affectionate then boys.
- Slow in growth & development
- Strong motor growth but athletic.
- Body balance, jumping, running skills are highly developed
- Interested on outdoor activities, explorative activities
- High confidence/ self esteem
- Naughtiness & sloppy
- Aggressive & temper tantrum
- Negative and carefree age
- Wide range of intelligence development
- Physically ready to do their work
- Shows socially accepted behavior, more cultured & follow rules.